Department of Physiology
Basic Sciences Building
New York Medical College
Valhalla, NY 10595
Countermeasures to Radiation Induced Cardiomyopathy: Space travel increases solar particle radiation exposure to astronauts and this is significantly elevated once travel moves beyond low Earth orbit. This includes gamma radiation, as well as a combination of high energy protons and heavy ions such as 56Fe, 28Si, and 16O. Most estimates of galactic radiation exposure have a low fluence rate that is much lower that patients undergoing radiotherapy. However, the cumulative radiation dose is likely to have long-term deleterious effects on the health of astronauts. We have observed "late onset" degradation of cardiovascular function in an animal model of cosmic radiation (high-LET) comparable to near Earth orbit space flight. The major goals of our going projects are to develop countermeasures to prevent long-term cellular degradation as a consequence of space flight due to cosmic radiation exposure.
Mitochondrial DNA Damage underlies Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Diabetes elevates oxidative stress, which contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is particularly susceptible to damage, and the laboratory group has demonstrated that increased mtDNA mutations are concomitant with the oxidative stress associated with hyperglycemia. We are examining whether diabetic-induced alterations in mitochondrial topoisomerase activity is the underlying mechanism for mtDNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction that is antecedent to heart failure. A second project will establish whether cardiac progenitor cells are more sensitive to chronic elevations in oxidative stress than cardiomyocytes. Taking a longer view, identifying the pathology of cardiac stem cells as a consequence of diabetes will alter the clinical paradigm for the management of diabetes. It will provide a basis for development of new studies that focus on the protection of stem cells as a real target for clinical management.
Post Graduate Studies: University of Arizona, Einstein College of Medicine
Graduate Degree: Ph.D.
Graduate Degree Institution: University of Iowa
Undergraduate Institution: Queen’s University
Nikisher B., H. Haran M. Weiss, K. Tefft, & J. G. Edwards: Small Molecule Countermeasures to Radiation Induced Cellular Dysfunction. Presented at the 2021 NASA Human Research Program, In. Virtual February 2021
Weiss M., K. Tefft, B. Nikisher, A. Katseff, & J. G. Edwards: Small Molecule Countermeasures to Radiation Induced Cellular Dysfunction. Presented at the 2020 NASA Human Research Program. Galveston TX January 2020
Edwards J.G., M. Weiss, K. Tefft, B. Nikisher, & A. Katseff: Countermeasures to the impact of cosmic radiation exposure on myocardial mitochondrial function. FASEB J. Vol 34, Issue 1, 2020
Dhagia V., A. Kitagawa, C. Jacob, C. Zheng, A. D'Alessandro, J.G. Edwards, P. Rocic, R. Gupte, and S. Gupte: G6PD activity contributes to the regulation of histone acetylation and gene expression in smooth muscle cells and to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Amer J. Physiology Heart; accepted 2021
Mitry M., D. Laurent, B. Keith, E. Sira, C. A. Eisenberg, L. M. Eisenberg, S. Joshi, S. Gupte, & J.G. Edwards: Accelerated cardiomyocyte senescence contributes to late-onset doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. .Amer. J. Physiology Cell 318:C380-C391, 2020
Chettimada S., H. Ata, D. Rawat, S. Gulati, A. Kahn, J.G. Edwards, & S. Gupte: Contractile protein expression is upregulated by reactive oxygen species in aorta of Goto-Kakizaki Rat. American Journal of Physiology; Hear & Circulation Physiology 306:H214-H224, 2014
Hicks S., N. Labinskyy, B. Piteo , D. Laurent, , J. E. Mathew, S.A. Gupte , & J. G. Edwards: Type II diabetes increases mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in the left ventricle of Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rat. Amer. J. Physiol. Heart Circ Physiol. 304:H903-H915, 2013
Medikayala S., B. Piteo, X. Zhao, & J. G. Edwards: Chronically elevated glucose compromises myocardial mitochondrial DNA integrity by alteration of mitochondrial topoisomerase function. Amer. Jour, Physiology; Cell; 300(2): C338-348, 2011